Anti-Money Laundering Act (AMLA)
31 U.S.C. § 5323 (a)(5) & (g) & (j)


Section § 5323. WHISTLEBLOWER INCENTIVES AND PROTECTIONS.—

(a) Definitions.—In this section:

(5) Whistleblower.—

 

(A) In general. — The term "whistleblower" means any individual who provides, or 2 or more individuals acting jointly who provide, information relating to a violation of this subchapter or subchapter III to the employer of the individulas, including as part of the job duties of the individual or individuals, or to the Secretary or the Attorney General.

(B) Special rule. — Solely for the purposes of subsection (g)(1), the term "whistleblower" includes any individual who takes, or 2 or more individuals acting jointly who take, an action described in subsection (g)(1)(A).

Section § 5323(g) PROTECTION OF WHISTLEBLOWERS.—

(1) PROHIBITION AGAINST RETALIATION. — No employer may, directly or indirectly, discharge, demote, suspend, threaten, blacklist, harass, or in any other manner discriminate against a whistleblower in the terms and conditions of employment or post-employment because of any lawful act done by the whistleblower —

 

(A) in providing information in accordance with this section to —

 

(i) the Secretary or the Attorney General;

(ii) a Federal regulatory or law enforcement agency;

(iii) any Member of Congress or any committee of Congress; or

(iv) a person with supervisory authority over the whistleblower, or such other person working for the employer who has the authority to investigate, discover, or terminate misconduct; or

(B) in initiating, testifying in, or assisting in any investigation or judicial or administrative action of the Department of the Treasury or the Department of Justice based upon or related to the information described in subparagraph (A); or

(C) in providing information regarding any conduct that the whistleblower reasonably believes constitutes a violation of any law, rule, or regulation subject to the jurisdiction of the Department of the Treasury, or a violation of section 1956, 1957, or 1960 of title 18 (or any rule or regulation under any such provision), to —

 

(i) a person with supervisory authority over the whistleblower at the employer of the whistleblower; or

(ii) another individual working for the employer described in clause (i) who the whistleblower reasonably believes has the authority to —

 

(I) investigate, discover, or terminate the misconduct; or

(II) take any other action to address the misconduct.

(2) ENFORCEMENT. — Any individual who alleges discharge or other discrimination, or is otherwise aggrieved by an employer, in violation of paragraph (1), may seek relief by —

 

(A) filing a complaint with the Secretary of Labor in accordance with the requirements of this subsection; or

(B) if the Secretary of Labor has not issued a final decision within 180 days of the filing of a complaint under subparagraph (A), and there is no showing that such a delay is due to the bad faith of the claimant, bringing an action against the employer at law or in equity in the appropriate district court of the United States, which shall have jurisdiction over such an action without regard to the amount in controversy.

(3) PROCEDURE. —

 

(A) DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPLAINT. —

 

(i) IN GENERAL. — Except as provided in clause (ii) and subparagraph (C), the requirements under section 42121(b) of title 49, including the legal burdens of proof described in such section 42121(b), shall apply with respect to a complaint filed under paragraph (2)(A) by an individual against an employer.

(ii) EXCEPTION. — With respect to a complaint filed under paragraph (2)(A), notification required to be made under section 42121(b)(1) of title 49 shall be made to each person named in the complaint, including the employer.

(B) DISTRICT COURT COMPLAINT. —

 

(i) JURY TRIAL. — A party to an action brought under paragraph (2)(B) shall be entitled to trial by jury.

(ii) STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS. —

 

(I) IN GENERAL. — An action may not be brought under paragraph (2)(B) —

 

(aa) more than 6 years after the date on which the violation of paragraph (1) occurs; or

(bb) more than 3 years after the date on which when facts material to the right of action are known, or reasonably should have been known, by the employee alleging a violation of paragraph (1).

(II) REQUIRED ACTION WITHIN 10 YEARS. — Notwithstanding subclause (I), an action under paragraph (2)(B) may not in any circumstance be brought more than 10 years after the date on which the violation occurs.

(C) RELIEF. — Relief for an individual prevailing with respect to a complaint filed under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) or an action brought under subparagraph (B) of that paragraph shall include —

 

(i) reinstatement with the same seniority status that the individual would have had, but for the conduct that is the subject of the complaint or action, as applicable;

(ii) 2 times the amount of back pay otherwise owed to the individual, with interest;

(iii) the payment of compensatory damages, which shall include compensation for litigation costs, expert witness fees, and reasonable attorneys’ fees; and

(iv) any other appropriate remedy with respect to the conduct that is the subject of the complaint or action, as applicable.

(4) CONFIDENTIALITY. —

 

(A) IN GENERAL. — Except as provided in subparagraphs (C) and (D), the Secretary or the Attorney General, as applicable, and any officer or employee of the Department of the Treasury or the Department of Justice, shall not disclose any information, including information provided by a whistleblower to either such official, which could reasonably be expected to reveal the identity of a whistleblower, except in accordance with the provisions of section 552a of title 5, unless and until required to be disclosed to a defendant or respondent in connection with a public proceeding instituted by the appropriate such official or any entity described in subparagraph (D).

(B) EXEMPTED STATUTE. — For purposes of section 552 of title 5, this paragraph shall be considered a statute described in subsection (b)(3)(B) of such section 552.

(C) RULE OF CONSTRUCTION. — Nothing in this section is intended to limit, or shall be construed to limit, the ability of the Attorney General to present such evidence to a grand jury or to share such evidence with potential witnesses or defendants in the course of an ongoing criminal investigation.

(D) AVAILABILITY TO GOVERNMENT AGENCIES. —

 

(i) IN GENERAL.—Without the loss of its status as confidential in the hands of the Secretary or the Attorney General, as applicable, all information referred to in subparagraph (A) may, in the discretion of the appropriate such official, when determined by that official to be necessary to accomplish the purposes of this subchapter, be made available to—

 

(I) any appropriate Federal authority;

(II) a State attorney general in connection with any criminal investigation;

(III) any appropriate State regulatory authority; and

(IV) a foreign law enforcement authority.

(ii) CONFIDENTIALITY.—

 

(I) IN GENERAL.—Each of the entities described in subclauses (I) through (III) of clause (i) shall maintain such information as confidential in accordance with the requirements established under subparagraph (A).

(II) FOREIGN AUTHORITIES.—Each entity described in clause (i)(IV) shall maintain such information in accordance with such assurances of confidentiality as determined by the Secretary or Attorney General, as applicable.

(5) RIGHTS RETAINED.—Nothing in this section shall be deemed to diminish the rights, privileges, or remedies of any whistleblower under any Federal or State law or under any collective bargaining agreement.

(6) COORDINATION WITH OTHER PROVISIONS OF LAW.—This subsection shall not apply with respect to any employer that is subject to section 33 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 23 1831j) or section 213 or 214 of the Federal Credit Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1790b, 1790c).

Section § 5323(j) NONENFORCEABILITY OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS WAIVING RIGHTS AND REMEDIES OR REQUIRING ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES.—

(1) WAIVER OF RIGHTS AND REMEDIES.—The rights and remedies provided for in this section may not be waived by any agreement, policy form, or condition of employment, including by a predispute arbitration agreement.

(2) PREDISPUTE ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS.—No predispute arbitration agreement shall be valid or enforceable, to the extent the agreement requires arbitration of a dispute arising under this section.